Coffee beans are seeds of an evergreen plant from the Rubiaceae family, genus Coffea. At the genus Coffea belong about 80 species but the two most important and best known are the Coffea Arabica (Arabica said) and Coffea canephora (known as Robusta). The plant can also reach 10 meters in height, but, usually it is pruned and reaches a maximum height of 3 meters.

There are different varieties belonging to the Arabica family (typical, mocha, maragogype); it is native to the Ethiopian highlands and spread throughout the Arab world. It represents around three-quarters of world production. The coffee bean aroma with a pleasant acidity and fine taste. This variety has a grain of blue green color and oval in shape: cultivated in Brazil arabica coffee are specifically defined as Brazilians. The others, those grown in Peru, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Santo Domingo, Haiti, Colombia, Venezuela are extremely fine coffee and are distinguished as "Milds" (sweet).

Focusing on Robusta, we notice lesss variety :you get a stronger taste coffee than Arabica one; its grain is round and yellow or yellow-brown color. The Robusta variety is usually grown in India, Vietnam, Congo, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Togo, Madagascar and in Indonesia. Truly Africa also produces the prized Arabica coffee (Kenya, Harrar, Gimmar).

The various components of coffee can vary greatly between them for several reasons:

  • geographical origin,
  • processing methods,
  • storage,
  • preparation and storage,
  • roasting,
  • extraction.

There are also differences due to species such as the Arabica species it contains about half the caffeine than the Robusta. The best known component of coffee is caffeine. The minerals are represented mainly by potassium as well as small amounts of calcium, magnesium, phosphates and sulphates. Fats are represented by the oil of coffee and a small amount of wax. Coffee also contains carbohydrates consisting of sucrose, glucose and fructose. The only fat-soluble vitamin E is present in coffee; vitamin PP is present in the toasted grain.